Short-term rental (STR) platforms such as Airbnb have increasingly become the focal point of an urban conflict over how residential properties should be used, and in whose interests. Building on the results of a multi-year research project investigating STRs in cities around the world, this presentation addresses three crucial questions. 1) Housing impacts- What impact have STRs had on urban housing availability and affordability, and on neighbourhood quality of life? 2) Social dynamics- How is the platform economy changing social and economic relationships between inhabitants, housing, and urban space? 3) Policy options- What policy options are available to governments seeking to regulate STRs in the public interest? What evidence exists about the effectiveness of different regulatory approaches? In answering these questions, the presentation will include a detailed empirical discussion of the state of short-term rentals on Prince Edward Island.